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Battle of the Ristigouche
Alexander Park, Water Street, Campbellton

The Battle of the Ristigouche occurred in the waters off Campbellton in 1760. In an attempt to protect their fleet, the French constructed a number of gun batteries along both sides of the Restigouche River. One of these, known as the Gilbert Battery with three 4-pounder cannons, was located in Campbellton, in what is now Alexander Park, which, before land fill, was located on the river bank. The battery was under command of Lieutenant Gilbert from the French frigate Machault and manned by French sailors and several hundred Acadians and First Nations. On July 7th, under heavy bombardment from British frigates, the battery was abandoned. This was the preliminary step to the destruction of the French fleet.

Marking this event are two cannons in Riverview Park, one with three fleurs-de-lys on the barrel and the other with what appears to be stylized anchors. These are French naval guns from a five gun battery erected during the battle at Battery Point on the Quebec side of the river. When the Busteed family received a land grant at Battery Point, circa 1790, they found at least three cannons at the old battery site. One cannon was built into the fireplace of their home, called Bordeaux House, and two others were given to relatives across the river at Athol House in Atholville. For many years the two cannons outside Athol House where fired on ceremonial occasions. After Athol House burned, the guns lay on the riverbank until donated to the City of Campbelltown in 1898. They were first displayed outside a school and finally in the 1920s placed in their present location. Both French barrels are currently mounted on iron carriages. Both carriages have “24" and “P” stamped on them separated by the British “crowfoot” and the initials “C & H”. The numbers 21-2-20 and 21-2-26 also appear the carriages. A exhibit interpreting the Battle of the Ristigouche can be found at the Parks Canada's National Historic Site at Pointe-à-la-Croix, Québec.


Highway #17, Glencoe

The Massacre of Glencoe is one of the traumatic events in Scottish history. The Highland Chieftains had been given until December 31st,1691 to take an oath of allegiance to the English monarchs, William and Mary. All reluctantly did, except for Alexander MacDonald of Glencoe, who, due to delay and confusion, took the oath a week late. His Scottish enemies used this opportunity to make an example of MacDonald and his clan. After being received hospitality as visitors, the soldiers of Alexander Campbell's Argyll Regiment massacred the unsuspecting inhabitants of Glencoe in the early hours of February 13th, 1692. The disdain for the Campbells by the forces of Scottish nationalism, and particularly by the MacDonalds, was keenly felt for generations. Whoever selected the name of Glencoe for a village located just outside the town of Campbellton had both a good knowledge of history and a wry sense of humour. One would hope it was a MacDonald.


American Privateer Raids
Old Church Point, Boom Lane, Atholville

During the American Revolutionary War, Rebel privateers were active in the Bay of Chaleur. In 1773, David Duncan and Robert Adams had been engaged to develop the salmon fishery along the Restigouche River. They established stations at a number of points along the river, with their headquarters at Old Church Point, now part of Atholville. This trading post became an obvious target for raiding Rebel privateers who plundered it twice during the conflict. On the second raid, a warning had been received and the company stores were hidden in pits in the woods. Unfortunately, they were betrayed by some of their Acadian employees and Adam complained that the Rebels took everything, including his hat and watch. This raid left the traders in such a desperate state that they had to built a boat in order to obtain supplies from Quebec.


Grave of Captain James Aylett of the British 20th Regiment
Old Athol House Cemetery, Atholville
Buried in the Old Athol House Cemetery behind the pulp mill is Captain James Aylett of the 20th Regiment (Lancaster Fusiliers), a decorated veteran of the Crimean War and Indian Mutiny. Aylett was born in India, the son of a British soldier. As was the custom of the time, young James was sent to England for his education and upon completion his father bought him a commission in the British army. During his long service he was stationed with his Regiment in India, England, Ireland, Bermuda, Crimea, Nova Scotia and central Canada. Aylett met his Irish born wife, a Miss Torrent, while in England and married her while stationed in Bermuda. As noted on his grave marker, he saw action in the Crimean battles of Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman and Sebastopol, winning four clasps to his campaign medal and a Turkish decoration. In India, he saw action at the Battles of Chanda, Ameerpore, Sultanpore and Lucknow. Amazingly, throughout it all, he escaped unwounded. When it came time to retired, he opted to return to North America, where he bought 1,000 acres with valuable salmon fishing right on the Restigouche River, four miles from Matapedia. He also received a land grant at Tide Head where he took up farming. According to the 1881 census, Captain Aylett and his family were living in Campbellton. He died in 1882 at the age of 66.


Grave of Lieutenant Perry Dumaresq, Royal Navy
Riverview Cemetery, Dalhousie

Buried in the Riverview Cemetery, Dalhousie, is a naval veteran of the War of 1812. Lieutenant Perry Dumaresq was born into a titled family on the Island of Jersey, Great Britain, in 1788. He entered in Royal Navy at an early age, served in the British North American and West Indies Squadron, and was promoted lieutenant on 14 April 1810. During the War of 1812 he was the commander of HMS Paz and part of the squadron under command of Admiral John P. Beresford, responsible for blockading the east coast of North American. Dumaresq distinguished himself by capturing many enemy ships, mainly American schooners. His most noteworthy seizure was the capture on 27 March 1813 of the armed American merchantman Montesquieu, en route to the USA with a rich cargo from Canton, China. A controversy followed with Dumaresq claiming that Beresford, his squadron commander, had usurped his prize money. Dumaresq retired from the navy after the war and entered the custom service, where he played a prominent role in the political life of northeastern New Brunswick. He died in Dalhousie on 13 March 1839.


Highway #17, Saint-Quentin

The City of Saint-Quentin is located on the Somme River in the old French province of Picardy. It was the site of a key battle in the last major German offensive of World War One. Although the British forces were force to give ground, the line held after very ferocious fighting. The original names of the New Brunswick village was first Five Fingers and then Anderson's Settlement. The name was changed in 1919 to commemorate the Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1918. This was considered appropriate because some of the original settlers were from Picardy.


First World War Field Artillery Gun
Riverview Park, Water Street, Campbellton

Located in Riverview Park is a war trophy artillery gun. On the barrel is found a worn crest with a crown which appears to be a stylized “R” and a motto ending in “Regis.” It has been identified as a Krupp designed German 77mm field gun, model M96nA. It was the principal German field gun at the outbreak of the First World War and remained in production throughout the war, with over 5,000 still in service at war’s end. The calibre was chosen because other nations’ guns of 75mm or 76.2 mm could be bored out to accept German ammunition but they could not do the same with captured German weapons. This gun could fire a 6.85 kg shrapnel shell to a maximum range of 7,800 metres.


Captain Robert Shives, Royal Flying Corps
Memorial in the Anglican Christ Church, Campbellton

Robert Kilgour Shives, born in Campbellton, NB on 20 July 1891, graduated with a degree in forestry from the University of New Brunswick in 1913. When the First World War broke out he attempted to enlist in the Canadian Army but was rejected as unfit because of an injury he had sustained to his ankle working in the woods. Undeterred, he went to Toronto and learned to fly at his own expense. Once qualified as a pilot, he was accepted into the Royal Flying Corps. He was soon in action employed on aerial reconnaissance. On 30 April 1916, while flying ten miles behind German lines, he was engaged by an enemy aircraft and badly wounded. Despite his wound, Shives managed to fly back the twenty-five miles to his aerodrome. That summer he returned to Campbellton to recover from his wound. On his return to duty he was employed protecting England from attack by Zeppelins. On 29 September 1916 he was killed by an accidental discharge while examining a machine gun at Euston, England.

Captain Shives’ remains were repatriated to Canada and he was buried in Fernhill Cemetery in Saint John.

The pew, choir stalls and organ in the Anglican Christ Church in Campbellton are dedicated to the memory of Captain Shives and his father Kilgour Shives. (Also see Memorial Hall entry in York County.)


Grave of Captain Oliver A. Mowat, Military Cross, Siberian Expeditionary Force
Campbellton Rural Cemetery, Campbellton

Oliver Alexander Mowat served during the Great War and was one of four sons of Max and Lilian Mowat of Campbellton. Born in 1893, he enlisted in 1914 and was commissioned a lieutenant in 24th Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. Within the year he was in action in France. He was wounded in July 1916 and again in August 1917. With his second wound he returned to Campbellton to recuperate. Although Mowat could have remained in Canada in some military capacity, he was determined to return to action. In March 1918 he was back in England attached to the 68th Battery, 16th Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery. The 68th Battery became a component of the Siberian Expeditionary Force and by September 1918 Captain Mowat was in Northern Russia helping to protect the vital port of Archangel and to fight the Bolsheviks. He won a Military Cross for his “conspicuous gallantry” at an action at Kodema on 15 December 1918. On 19 January 1919 Mowat and his battery were in support of American and White Russian forces at Shenkursk, when they were attacked by a strong force of Bolsheviks. Mowat was mortally wounded by shell fire. Prior to their evacuation from Siberia, members of his battery disinterred Mowat’s body, placed it in a coffin, and had it shipped back to England as part of the battery baggage. There the body was collected by his father, properly preserved by an undertaker, placed in a sealed coffin, and shipped back to Campbelltown. Captain Oliver Mowat was buried with military honours in the Campbellton Rural Cemetery. His grave marker commemorates both him and his older brother, Second Lieutenant Morden Maxwell Mowat, who was shot down and killed by the German flying ace Max Immelman on 16 May 1916, while serving with the 11th
Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps. Morden Mowat was 25 years of age and is buried at Cabaret Rouge British Cemetery, Souchez, France.

Captain Oliver Mowat
(Photo: Tim Jacque)

Second Lieutenant Morden Mowat
Mowat Memorial Stone.
Mowat grave stone.
Mowat Family gravestone, Campbellton Rural Cemetery.
Gravestone of Second Lieutenant Morden M. Mowat, Cabaret Rouge British Cemetery, Souchez, France.



Lance Corporal Robert Stewart’s Unfortunate Death
Riverview Cemetery, Dalhousie

In the Riverview Cemetery two markers indicate the grave of Robert Gordon Caldwell Stewart, one a family gravestone and the other a veteran’s marker. Stewart was born in Dalhousie, New Brunswick, on 16 March 1879. At the outbreak of the First World War he was employed in Ontario and he immediately enlisted in the 15th (48th Highlanders) Battalion. He sailed with his unit to England in October 1914 and arrived in France on 14 February 1915. On 23 April 1915, Stewart received serious wounds to his head and shoulder at Gravenstafel Ridge during the 2nd Battle of Ypres. Within the month he was in hospitals in England and in December, suffering paralysis on one side, he was returned to Canada and placed in the St. John Military Hospital. In order to receive specialist treatment he was sent to Toronto. Due to his wounds, Stewart had impaired vision and was very unsteady on his feet. While convalescing he took a walk on Yonge Street. Despite his protests of innocence, a military policeman arrested him for drunkenness and place him in a police cell. Although released immediately the next morning, in his weakened condition he developed pneumonia in the damp cell and died shortly after on 28 March 1916.

The Thompson Family Military Service during the Second World War
Village of Tide Head

Mr and Mrs William Thompson of 258 Alford Drive, Tide Head, had seven sons serve in the Canadian Armed Forces during World War Two - Frederick, John, Gerald, Bill, Gordon, Merle and Patrick.. This is believed to be the Canadian record for most number of siblings from one family to serve. Of these, two were killed in action and two others were wounded. Guardsman Frederick Daniel Thompson was the eldest of the boys, born in 1907 and married with three children. He enlisted in the Canadian Grenadiers Guards in Montreal. He was killed on 10 August 1944 during heavy fighting at Falaise Gap near Caen, France. He is buried in the Bretteville sur Laize Cemetery near Caen. John Bryon Thompson, born in 1920, enlisted in the Carleton and York Regiment. He was killed on 13 December 1943 during an attack on the “Cider” Crossroads near Ortona, Italy. He is buried it the Moro River Cemetery, near Ortona.


New Brunswick International Paper Mill during the Second World War

When World War Two broke out, James O’Halloran, Chief Engineer at Anglo-Canadian Pulp and Paper Mills in Quebec City, developed a plan for gearing up machine shops at pulp and paper mills to assist with war production. The paper mill at Dalhousie was involved in this programme and outfitted several warships during the war. One of the ships outfitted at this mill was the ill-fated armed yacht HMS Racoon, sunk in the St Lawrence by a U-boat while on convoy escort duty with the loss of all 38 hands. The Dalhousie mill was recognized for its war effort with a Certificate of Merit for its “outstanding and meritorious work in the production of eccentric sheaves and straps for 10,000 ton cargo vessel engines.”


HMCS Inch Arran
Inch Arran Park, Dalhousie

During the World War Two, the Royal Canadian Navy named their ships after towns and cities. Since no two Allied warship could share the same name, the RCN began to run out of names and came up with the idea of using names associated with selected communities. HMCS Inch Arran was named for Inch Arran Point in Dalhousie. The point was named by John Hamilton an early settler and native of the Island of Arran in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. The word “inch” is also of Scottish origin and refers to a small point of land. HMCS Inch Arran remained in service to the end of the war and as late as the 1960s.


Veterans' Memorial
Highway #17, Kedgwick

Veterans' Memorial erected by the Royal Canadian Legion.


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